Back Anatomy: All About the Back Muscles

by Alex

The back anatomy includes the latissimus dorsi, trapezius, erector spinae, rhomboid, and the teres major. On this page, you’ll learn about each of these muscles, their locations and functional anatomy.

Function of the Back Muscles

There are several individual muscles within the back anatomy, and it’s important to take a quick look at all of them to see how you can target them effectively and develop a solid back. The image below to shows all the major back muscles (as well as some neck muscles):

Back Anatomy
The back anatomy includes some of the most massive and functionally important muscles in the human body. Still, many individuals pay far too little attention to them.

The back muscles enable you to stand up straight; support and protect your spine; and reach, pull and extend your arms and torso.

Poorly developed back muscles lead to everything from muscle tweaks and pulls to imbalances of the musculature to the all-too-common hunched-over look (the “Neanderthal look”). All of these things can lead to long term back pain (and chronic complaining!). Luckily you’ve found this page to help you prevent would-be ailments.

Latissimus Dorsi (Lats)

The latissimus dorsi, also known as the “lats” or “wings,” are the largest and most well-known of all the back muscles.

Once large enough, the lats are responsible for your body’s “V-taper” because of their protruding appearance under your armpit area and on the back of your ribs.

And as you might guess, they are the back muscles most commonly targeted by lifters in the gym. However, many fail to give them the proper attention required to reach their full potential.

Latissimus Dorsi Anatomy
Your lats help you in pulling and reaching with your arms, and support your body in a variety of movements and situations.

To target your lats, you can use a variety of popular back exercises, including lat pulldowns, pull ups, barbell bent over rows, dumbbell one arm rows, and deadlifts.

Trapezius (Traps)

The trapezius muscles are located between your shoulder and your neck. Since they extend higher than the collarbone height, they are most noticable from the frontal view; although they actually reach all the way down to the lower back region.

The traps consist of three sections of muscle fibers: The lower trapezius, middle trapezius and upper trapezius fibers.

Trapezius Anatomy
The traps are quite a complex set of muscles. They control the scapulae (shoulder blades), which play a role in shrugging, neck movement, head support, and more.

Most guys in the gym don’t pay enough attention to the traps, or they pay too much attention to the upper traps. However, an evenly and well developed trapezius muscles can highlight and excellently finish off a physique and prevent shoulder and neck problems.

Shrugs, deadlifts and power cleans hit the upper traps the strongest. Dumbbell rear deltoid raises, cable face pulls, barbell rows and seated rows are better at targeting the middle and lower trapezius fibers.

Erector Spinae (Spinal Erectors)

The erector spinae muscles, or spinal erectors, line your spinal column from the lower to the upper back.

Erector Spinae Anatomy
The spinal erecotrs allow you to flex and extend your back in any given direction. They also support and protect your vertebrae, meaning that stronger spinal erectors lead to improved posture and core stabilization.

With good back training, they will develop and provide a boost to your total body strength, in addition to improving your back’s “thickness,” or “density.”

Deadlifts are the best exercise for developing these muscles. However, since so many gym-goers never do deadlifts, these crucial muscles typically receive disproportional attention.

Although deadlifts are far superior, other exercises can hit these muscles as well. Examples include hyperextensions, the barbell good morning as well as the barbell squat (especially when using heavier loads).

Rhomboid

The rhomboid muscle. This muscle is located on the upper portion of the back anatomy, underneath the trapezius. They originate from the vertebrae and insert into the scapulae.

Rhomboid Anatomy
The rhomboid muscle is activated as you bring and squeeze your scapula or shoulder blades back and together.

With that in mind, the best back exercises for targeting the rhomboids group are barbell rows, seated rows, t-bar rows, one-arm rows and pull ups/chin ups.

Teres Major

The teres major is a small, yet important muscle within the back. It is located underneath the lats, and has adopted the nickname, “The Little Lat.”

Teres Major Anatomy
As you might imagine, the teres major works in conjuction with the lats. But it also is works with the rotator cuff muscles. Its functions include pulling the arms downwards and rotating them inwards.

Straight-arm lat pulldowns and dumbbell pullovers most directly target this muscle. However, such isolation exercise are rarely necessary since you can sufficiently work the terest major using compounds back exercises, including various pull up and rowing movements.

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